Confined Space Rescue

Confined space rescue is a subset of technical rescue operations that involves the rescue and recovery of victims trapped in a confined space or in a place only accessible through confined spaces, such as underground vaults, storage silos, storage tanks, or sewers. Confined space rescues can be technically challenging due to the environment in which they occur. Confined spaces are often narrow and constricting, preventing easy access by rescuers. They are usually either unlit or poorly lit, so rescuers must provide their own light source. Finally, confined spaces often contain hazardous materials in liquid or gas form which can be harmful or fatal to humans. These hazards can be fatal as they create a limited window in which to perform a rescue. The general rule is that after four minutes without oxygen, a person in a confined space will likely suffer asphyxia resulting in either brain damage or death. The urgent need to rescue someone from a confined space often leads to ill-prepared

Cave Rescue

Cave rescue is a highly specialized field of wilderness rescue in which injured, trapped or lost cave explorers are medically treated and extracted from various cave environments. Cave rescue borrows elements from firefighting, confined space rescue, rope rescue and mountaineering techniques but has also developed its own special techniques and skills for performing work in conditions that are almost always difficult and demanding. Since cave accidents, on an absolute scale, are a very limited form of incident, and cave rescue is a very specialized skill, normal emergency staff are rarely employed in the underground elements of the rescue. Instead, this is usually undertaken by other experienced cavers who undergo regular training through their organizations and are called up at need. Cave rescues are slow, deliberate operations that require both a high level of organized teamwork and good communication. The extremes of the cave environment (air temperature, water, vertical depth) dict

Air-Sea Rescue

Air-sea rescue (ASR or A/SR, also known as sea-air rescue) is the coordinated search and rescue (SAR) of the survivors of emergency water landings as well as people who have survived the loss of their seagoing vessel. ASR can involve a wide variety of resources including seaplanes, helicopters, submarines, rescue boats and ships. Specialized equipment and techniques have been developed. Military and civilian units can perform air-sea rescue. Air-sea rescue operations carried out during war have saved valuable trained and experienced airmen. Moreover, the knowledge that such operations are being carried out greatly enhanced the morale of the combat aircrew faced not only with the expected hostile reaction of the enemy but with the possible danger of aircraft malfunction during long overwater flights.


In Japan, air-sea rescue operations are mainly conducted by the Japan Coast Guard (JCG), the Japan Maritime Self-Defense Force (JMSDF) and the Japan Air Self-Defense Force (JASDF). In the JCG, Divers (潜水士, Sensui-shi) have been conducting public safety diving. And now there are two additional categories of rescue-swimming specialists: mobile rescue technicians (機動救難士, Kidō-kyūnan-shi) and the top-tier Special Rescue Team (SRT). They are divers specially trained to acquire some advanced techniques including abseiling, and some are also qualified as emergency medical technicians (comparable to Advanced EMT in United States) to provide medical treatments. In the JMSDF, Helicopter rescue swimmers (HRS) are selected from assistant nurses and trained as both aircrew and divers. In contrast, Paramedics (救難員, kyūnan-in) of the JASDF, Japanese counterparts of the United States Air Force Pararescue, are not always medical professionals, but they must complete the Airborne Ranger Course of the Ja


Most rescue swimmers in Denmark are Danish Air Force personnel from the Danish Transport and Rescue Squadron (Squadron 722 or in Danish Eskadrille 722), and operate from AgustaWestland EH101 helicopters. These rescue swimmers have to be fully qualified as helicopter technicians before they start a 4-week course at the Danish Frogman Corps, followed by a 2-week first aid/PHTLS course. Other rescue swimmers are members of the Danish Navy and operate from Westland Lynx Mk 90B helicopters based on Thetis-class ocean patrol vessels in the waters around Greenland, the Faroe Islands, and, occasionally, Iceland. These swimmers are generally recruited from the diver-corps (which has a 6-to-10-week diving course from the Danish Navy Diving School) and receive basic helicopter-crash-survival training. Some coast-based rescue swimmers with high-speed boats are stationed around the coasts of Denmark. These rescue swimmers are trained by either the Danish national guard or Danish Maritime Safety Adm


Royal Canadian Air Force Search and Rescue Technicians (SAR TECHs) serve as rescue swimmers. They are military aircrew who deploy from rotary or fixed-wing aircraft in any environment or climactic condition. They will locate and penetrate the site, then treat and evacuate casualties. Qualified SAR TECHs have opportunities for advanced training and promotion. SAR TECHs who demonstrate the required knowledge, experience, and leadership skills may also be selected as an instructor at the Canadian Forces School of Search and Rescue (CFSSAR), at 19 Wing Comox, British Columbia. The Basic SAR TECH course is 11 months in duration. It includes the following phases: ground phase, medical phase, winter operations phase, arctic operations phase, dive phase, sea operations phase, parachuting operations phase, mountain operations phase, and operational/consolidation phase. The final operational phase is used to evaluate the individual's ability to use all previously learned skills and will be t

U.S. Navy/Marine Corps

United States Navy and Marine Corps rescue swimmer candidates attend a four-week Aircrew School followed by the five-week-long Aviation Rescue Swimmer School in Pensacola, Florida. After graduating rescue swimmer school, students go on to their respective 'A' School, also in Pensacola, Florida. Navy air rescue swimmers were recently split into two separate ratings. Which rating a rescue swimmer attains depends on what type of helicopter they are to become qualified in. Once Navy rescue swimmers have graduated 'A' School, they will go on to their respective Fleet Replacement Squadron (FRS). Here crewman learn the various systems in the helicopter in which they will be flying. They are also expected to know various in-flight procedures, such as hoist-operating procedures and in-flight trouble-shooting. This syllabus can take from six to twelve months. The last stop for a Navy rescue swimmer is SERE School (Survival, Evasion, Resistance, and Escape). Upon graduation from t